National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events on the planet, with the private video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the home group while half the groups have just eight house games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally among groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.