National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.