National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 home games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in breach of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.