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National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of groups 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.

eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.

These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player security.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 house video games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.

The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..

In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.

The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.

The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.

According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive earnings.

Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is topped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.

The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks too.

NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.

In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.

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