National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the house team while half the groups have only eight home games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in contravention of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.