National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions in the world, with the private games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting profitable television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits equally among teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the largest cost item, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.