National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized since the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic duties, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.