National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the groups have only eight home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.