National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the private games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house team while half the groups have only eight house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.