National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.