National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been used because the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home group while half the groups have only eight home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.