National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used since the league's production in 1920, however no situation had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the home group while half the teams have only eight house games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such revenue similarly among groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.