National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been experienced where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have only eight home video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.