National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used since the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only eight home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in breach of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.