National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where two teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 home games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income similarly among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.