National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used given that the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have just eight house games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.