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National Football League

Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website

including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.

eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.

1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.

The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.

These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.

The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.

The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..

In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.

In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.

The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.

Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest cost item, player salaries, is topped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.

Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks too.

NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later because the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.

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