National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only eight home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra home game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost item, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.