National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used since the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the teams have only eight house games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in contravention of the common business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.