National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used given that the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the house group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such revenue similarly among teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.