National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 home video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst teams, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in breach of the normal business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.