National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used since the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just 8 home games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income similarly amongst teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.