National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.