National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income equally among groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest expense item, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on since the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.