National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized since the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.