National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings similarly among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the largest expense item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.