National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly among teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.