National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income similarly amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest expense item, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.