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National Football League

Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site

consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.

eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been encountered where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champions.

1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.

These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.

Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..

In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.

The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such earnings equally among teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.

The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.

According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.

Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.

The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.

NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.

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