National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.