National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight house games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such profits similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later because the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.