National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the specific games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits similarly amongst teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in breach of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on most weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.