National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest cost product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.