National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the private games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly among teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the common business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.