National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized because the league's production in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the groups have just eight house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in conflict of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.