National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been come across where two groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.