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National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of groups 32

Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website

consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been come across where two groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.

1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.

A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.

The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on minimizing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.

These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve player security.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.

The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.

Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..

On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.

In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.

The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.

Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest cost product, player incomes, is topped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.

A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks also.

NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.

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