National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks also.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.