National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used given that the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income equally among groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest cost item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later on because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.