National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.