National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house group while half the groups have only eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.