National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial duties, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income equally among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.