National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 home video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later on because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.