National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had actually been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.