National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the home group while half the groups have only eight house video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.