National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income similarly among groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest expense item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later since the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.