2016 Nfl Referee Assignments

National Football League

Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site

including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.

eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Establishing and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where two groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.

1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.

The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.

These actions are among many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff development

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..

On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.

The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including granting the championship game trophy.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.

In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.

The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through extreme incomes.

Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.

Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks too.

NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.

2016 Nfl Referee Assignments