National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring financially rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly among teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.