National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where 2 teams were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.