National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.